Frequently Asked Questions

This page provides answers to your most-asked questions about the COVID-19 vaccine. This page includes some frequently asked questions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). For more vaccine FAQ, visit Frequently Asked Questions about COVID-19 Vaccination. For frequently asked questions and to check your symptoms, visit COVID-19 Information Hub at

Download FAQs and Key Messages about the COVID-19 Vaccine for Communities.

For data on vaccination delivery and administration in Alabama, visit the COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution Dashboard.

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If you have further questions once you have reviewed the questions and answers on this page, please call 1-800-270-7268 or email Telephone calls are answered from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding holidays. Interpreters are available.

Table of Contents

Planning for a Vaccine

Q: Can someone volunteer to assist with the administration of the COVID-19 vaccine?

A: Yes. Thank you for wanting to help with the state's vaccine rollout efforts. ADPH is actively recruiting and welcoming volunteers to assist with COVID-19 vaccination clinics throughout the state. Persons who wish to volunteer are asked to email their contact information to

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Vaccine Development

Q: How many COVID-19 vaccines are in development?

A: Currently, three vaccines are authorized and recommended to prevent COVID-19:

As of February 27, 2021, large-scale (Phase 3) clinical trials are in progress or being planned for two COVID-19 vaccines in the United States:

  • AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine
  • Novavax COVID-19 vaccine​

Q: Did people of all backgrounds participate in the clinical trials? Were the vaccines effective for people of all races and ethnicities?

A: In the Moderna vaccine trial, 20% of participants identified as Latino, 10% identified as Black and 4% Asian. In the Pfizer trial, 13% of participants identified as Latino, 10% identified as Black and 5.5% Asian. Final trial results from both Moderna and Pfizer revealed that their COVID-19 vaccines are equally effective at preventing COVID-19 infection across all racial and ethnic groups. Also see:

Q: Why were the vaccines developed so fast? I’m concerned that these vaccines did not undergo enough testing as other vaccines.

A: The speed of Covid-19 vaccine development is not a result of compromised safety or quality. The vaccine process is happening faster because research and development, clinical trials, manufacturing, and plans for distribution are occurring at the same time, with unprecedented levels of government spending. Also, the COVID-19 vaccine technology (mRNA) had been in development for over a decade and when the pandemic hit, scientists were able to build on this research to develop the vaccine.

Q: Do the COVID-19 vaccines contain fetal tissue or fetal material?

A: None of the three COVID-19 vaccines currently available in the U.S. contain any fetal tissue. All three companies used fetal cell lines as part of safety confirmation testing. The J&J vaccine also used the fetal cell lines during the development and production process. The fetal cell lines used were from cells grown in a laboratory descended from two elective abortions, one in the 1970s and the other in 1980s. The Vatican’s Doctrinal Office and the Catholic Church have indicated that the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are “morally acceptable” in the absence of other alternatives.

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Q: Is it safe?

A: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) carefully reviews all safety data from clinical trials and authorizes emergency vaccine use only when the expected benefits outweigh potential risks. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviews all safety data before recommending any COVID-19 vaccine for use. The FDA and CDC will continue to monitor the safety of COVID-19 vaccines, to make sure even very rare side effects are identified.

Q: What are the side effects?

A: Most people do not have serious problems after being vaccinated. Side effects may feel like flu and even affect your ability to do daily activities, but they should go away in a few days. Often times, people will have symptoms like mild fever, tiredness, and body aches after getting a vaccine. These symptoms are normal and signal your body’s immune response to the vaccine to help you prevent future infections. Learn about common side effects and get helpful tips on how to reduce your pain and discomfort from the CDC.

Q: How do I report if I have a problem or bad reaction after getting a COVID-19 vaccination?

A: CDC and FDA encourage the public to report possible side effects (called adverse events) to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). This national system collects these data to look for adverse events that are unexpected, appear to happen more often than expected, or have unusual patterns of occurrence. Learn about the difference between a vaccine side effect and an adverse event. Reports to VAERS help CDC monitor the safety of vaccines. Safety is a top priority.

Q: Should someone who lives with an autoimmune disorder or has previously had Guillain-Barre syndrome or Bell’s palsy get the COVID-19 vaccine?

A: Making sure COVID-19 vaccines protect people with certain underlying medical conditions is important. Adults of any age with certain underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for severe illness from the virus that causes COVID-19. mRNA COVID-19 vaccines may be administered to people with underlying medical conditions provided they have not had a severe allergic reaction to any of the ingredients in the vaccine. The CDC offers more information for persons with underlying medical conditions to help make an informed decision about receiving the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.

Q: I have allergies and have had a reaction to other vaccines. Is the COVID-19 vaccine safe for me?

A: The CDC provides recommendations for people who have had allergic reactions to other vaccines and for those with other types of allergies. Visit COVID-19 Vaccines and Allergic Reactions for more information.

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Q: Where can I get it?

A: Visit Vaccine Home to learn how to get vaccinated. View the Alabama COVID‐19 Vaccination Allocation Plan which defines populations and the order in which they will receive vaccine in four phases. Updates on vaccine administration and availability can be found on our Vaccine Distribution and Vaccination Updates pages.

Q: What will it cost? Will my insurance cover it?

A: The COVID-19 vaccine is free. If you have insurance or third party coverage, the provider can charge an administrative fee. However, if you do not have insurance or third party coverage, you should receive the COVID-19 vaccine with no out of pocket fee according to federal guidelines.If you do not have insurance, please consider getting your vaccine at your local health department or a community vaccine event.

Q: Is a COVID-19 vaccine necessary?

A: COVID-19 can be a minor illness in some people, but it may lead to severe disease or even death in previously healthy people. Many treatments and medications are being studied, but there is not currently any cure. Prevention is key. Vaccination is an important step in helping to prevent this illness and its potentially devastating consequences.

Q: Is taking the COVID-19 vaccine mandatory?

A: The vaccine is not mandatory; however, it can help prevent disease and reduce disease severity, especially anyone who is in a higher risk group, or who lives, works, or socializes with anyone who is at higher risk. Getting vaccinated will improve the health and well-being of our communities and get the economy moving again.

Q: How effective are the vaccines? Will they really reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection and complications?

A: In Phase 3 trials, the Pfizer vaccine showed a 95% efficacy rate 7 days after the second dose. The Moderna vaccine showed a 94% efficacy rate 14 days after the second dose. The J&J/Janssen vaccine which is a one dose vaccine was 66.3% effective in clinical trials (efficacy) 2 weeks after receiving the vaccine. The results in both studies were consistent across gender, age, race and ethnicity.

Q: Can children have the COVID-19 vaccine?

A: The Pfizer vaccine is the only COVID-19 vaccine currently authorized for ages 12 and older. Currently, our county health departments are giving the Moderna vaccine, which is authorized for ages 18 and older. Other providers, such as hospitals and some pharmacies, are giving the Pfizer vaccine. These other providers may also be offering the Johnson and Johnson vaccine, which is currently not authorized for those under 18 years of age. If you are 12-17 years of age, please check or contact the provider to see which vaccine is offered before scheduling your appointment.

Q: How old do you have to be to get vaccinated against COVID-19?

A: The Pfizer vaccine is the only COVID-19 vaccine currently authorized for ages 12 and older. Currently, our county health departments are giving the Moderna vaccine, which is authorized for ages 18 and older. Other providers, such as hospitals and some pharmacies, are giving the Pfizer vaccine. These other providers may also be offering the Johnson and Johnson vaccine, which is currently not authorized for those under 18 years of age. If you are 12-17 years of age, please check or contact the provider to see which vaccine is offered before scheduling your appointment.

Q: Will getting the flu vaccine protect me against COVID-19?

A: No. Influenza viruses and coronaviruses are different and the COVID-19 vaccine does not take the place of the pneumonia vaccine or the flu vaccine. Getting a flu vaccine will not protect against COVID-19; however, influenza vaccine can reduce flu illnesses, hospitalizations, and can help to conserve potentially scarce healthcare resources during the pandemic.

Q: Where can I find data on how many doses have been delivered and administered in Alabama?

A: Alabama's COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution Dashboard (shortened link: details the number of vaccines delivered and administered to Alabama and dispensed.

The COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution Dashboard can also be accessed on the COVID-19 Dashboard Hub (shortened link: This provides easy access to the Vaccine Distribution, Data and Surveillance, School and Risk Indicator Dashboards through tabs at the top.

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Getting Vaccinated

Q: How many shots of COVID-19 vaccine will be needed?

A: The J&J/Janssen vaccine only requires one dose. Pfizer-BioNTech requires two doses and should be given 3 weeks (21 days) apart. Moderna requires two doses and should be given 1 month (28 days) apart. You should get your second shot as close to the recommended 3-week or 1-month interval as possible. However, your second dose may be given up to 6 weeks (42 days) after the first dose, if necessary. You should not get the second dose earlier than the recommended interval.

Q: Can I “mix” doses of two kinds of COVID-19 vaccines?

A: The COVID-19 vaccines are not interchangeable. If two doses of different mRNA COVID-19 vaccine products are inadvertently administered, no additional doses of either product are recommended at this time. Recommendations may be updated as further information becomes available or other vaccine types (e.g., viral vector, protein subunit vaccines) are authorized.

Q: How effective is the vaccine after just one dose?

A: The Pfizer vaccine includes two shots, 21 days apart while the Moderna vaccine includes two shots, 28 days apart. Pfizer’s vaccine efficacy after a single dose was 52.4% in trials; Moderna’s was 80.2%. However, both doses are currently recommended to get the maximum protection, since there have been no clinical trials assessing these mRNA vaccines as single dose regimes.

Q: Do I still need to wear a mask when I am vaccinated and respect social distance?

A: Fully vaccinated people can resume activities without wearing a mask or physically distancing, except where required by federal, state, local, tribal, or territorial laws, rules, and regulations, including local business and workplace guidance. Persons receiving the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines are considered fully vaccinated two weeks after receiving their second dose. Persons receiving the Johnson and Johnson vaccine are considered fully vaccinated two weeks after receiving one dose.

Q: Do I still need to quarantine after being exposed to COVID, even if I have had COVID or been vaccinated?

A: CDC guidance indicates that fully vaccinated people can refrain from quarantine and testing if they do not have symptoms of COVID-19 after contact with someone who has COVID-19.

If you have not been fully vaccinated and you are exposed to COVID, you will need to follow CDC guidance regarding exposure and quarantine, even if you have previously been diagnosed with COVID-19.

CDC will continue to evaluate new information and update recommendations as needed.

Q: How long will my immunity last?

A: We don’t know how long protection lasts for those who are vaccinated. What we do know is that COVID-19 has caused very serious illness and death for a lot of people. If you get COVID-19, you also risk giving it to loved ones who may get very sick. Getting a COVID-19 vaccine is a safer choice.

Experts are working to learn more about both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity. CDC will keep the public informed as new evidence becomes available.

Q: I already had COVID-19 and recovered. Do I still need to get a vaccine?

A: COVID-19 vaccination should be offered to you regardless of whether you already had COVID-19 infection. You should not be required to have an antibody test before you are vaccinated. However, anyone currently infected with COVID-19 should wait to get vaccinated until after their illness has resolved and after they have met the criteria to discontinue isolation. Additionally, current evidence suggests that reinfection with the virus that causes COVID-19 is uncommon in the 90 days after initial infection. Therefore, people with a recent infection may delay vaccination until the end of that 90-day period if desired.

Q: Can I get my flu vaccine at the same time I get a COVID-19 vaccine?

A: Vaccines should not be given at the same time. Because of a lack of data on getting COVID-19 & other vaccines together, CDC recommends a 14-day interval before or after getting any other vaccines, including a flu vaccine.

Q: Can a tourist on a visitor visa get a COVID-19 vaccination in the U.S.?

A: No. Allocations within the U.S. are based on an estimate of the U.S. population and only available to U.S. residents.

Q: Can you get a COVID-19 vaccination from another county than where you reside?

A: Yes. Our goal is to ensure that everyone can receive vaccine without barriers, to the greatest extend possible.

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Page last updated: July 2, 2021