Controlled Substances

Controlled substances (CS) are regulated by the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA), which divides CS into five categories called schedules.

Schedule I drugs have a high potential for abuse and currently have no accepted medical use. They are the only schedule of drug that cannot be prescribed. Examples include heroin, gamma hydroxbutyric acid (GHB), lysergic acid diethlamide (LSD), and marijuana.

Schedule II drugs may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Examples include morphine, methamphetamine, cocaine, methadone, hydrocodone, fentanyl and phencyclidine (PCP).

Schedule III drugs may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence. Examples include anabolic steroids, codeine products with aspirin or Tylenol®, and certain barbiturates.

Schedule IV may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence compared with Schedule III drugs. Examples include Klonopin®, Valium® and Xanax®.

Schedule V drugs have the lowest potential for abuse. They may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence compared with Schedule IV drugs. Cough medicines with codeine are one example. 

Drug Facts

Drug Use During Pregnancy

Opioid use disorder during pregnancy has been linked with serious negative health outcomes for pregnant women and developing babies, including preterm birth, stillbirth, maternal mortality, and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). NAS is a group of withdrawal symptoms that most commonly occurs in newborns after exposure to opioids during pregnancy. If you are pregnant and using opiod pain medications, CDC reccommends you talk to your provider before starting or stopping any medications to help you understand all of your risks and make the safest choice for you and your pregnancy.





Page last updated: October 21, 2019